- Tramadol Overdose: how to take, reviews, composition
- When and how to take Tramadol Overdose in powder and in capsules
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Tramadol Overdose: how to take, reviews, composition
TRAMADOL capsules | buy – Ukraine – manual, price in pharmacies, analogues, composition, indications, reviews | Farmak | Reference Compendium.com.ua
TRAMADOL – complete information on the preparation from the manufacturer, the price in the nearest pharmacies for TRAMADOL, a list of analogues.
pharmacodynamics tramadol overdose :. Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic. It has a mixed mechanism of action. It is a non-selective opioid agonist of mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Other mechanisms that are involved in ensuring the analgesic action of tramadol hydrochloride are inhibition of the reuptake of norepinephrine in neurons and the enhancement of the serotonergic response.
It opens K + and Ca ++ channels, causes hyperpolarization of the membranes and inhibits the conduction of pain impulses. The analgesic effect is due to a decrease in tramadol overdose: the activity of nociceptive and increased antinociceptive system of the body. Tramadol hydrochloride exhibits antitussive action. When used in therapeutic doses of tramadol, hydrochloride does not inhibit respiration and does not affect intestinal motility.
Pharmacokinetics. When administered to the gastrointestinal tract absorbed more than 90% of tramadol. Cmax in plasma is reached after 4.8 h. The absolute bioavailability is 68%. Binding to plasma proteins – 20%. It penetrates the BBB and placental barrier. 0.1% of the drug penetrates into breast milk. Metabolized in the liver. T½ – 6 hours. Tramadol hydrochloride and its metabolites are excreted by the kidneys (25–35%) unchanged. About 7% is excreted through hemodialysis.
Marked increase in T½ in patients over the age of 75 years.
acute and chronic pain syndrome of moderate and significant degree of severity (before- and postoperative periods, malignant tumors, injuries, neuralgia). Conducting painful diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
The dose and duration of treatment are determined by the doctor individually, based on the intensity of the pain syndrome.
Adults and children from the age of 14 are prescribed orally (with a small amount of liquid, regardless of the meal), 1 capsule (50 mg). With severe pain, a single dose can be 2 capsules (100 mg).
The daily dose should not exceed 8 capsules (400 mg).
The drug can not be used longer than the period justified from a therapeutic point of view. Patients with moderate hepatic / renal dysfunction, as well as the elderly, are individually selected.
In moderate liver failure, it is recommended to reduce the dose or increase the interval between doses.
With moderate renal failure, it is advisable to increase the interval between doses. For patients with creatinine clearance <30 мл/мин интервал следует увеличить до 12 ч. В таких случаях максимальная рекомендованная ежедневная доза составит 200 мг.
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or other components of the drug. Acute alcohol intoxication, acute poisoning with hypnotic, analgesic or psychotropic drugs; severe liver failure, severe renal failure (creatinine clearance <10 мл/мин), эпилепсия с частыми приступами. Период лечения ингибиторами МАО и следующие 14 дней после их отмены. Не применяется для лечения опиоидной зависимости. Период беременности или кормления грудью. Детский возраст до 14 лет.
on the part of the nervous system: often – possibly increased sweating, headache, dizziness; rarely – weakness, lethargy, slow reaction, sleep disturbance, nightmares, euphoria, hallucinations, anxiety, emotional lability, depression, amnesia, paresthesias, drowsiness, epileptiform seizures, tremor, respiratory depression, impaired coordination and speech, syncope, confusion anxiety.
From the senses: rarely – visual impairment, taste, mydriasis.
On the part of the digestive system: often – nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, changes in appetite, constipation, flatulence, epigastric pain, diarrhea; in some cases, there was an increase in liver enzyme levels.
Since the cardiovascular system: infrequently – tachycardia, palpitations; decrease in blood pressure until collapse (orthostatic collapse); rarely – bradycardia, increased blood pressure.
Allergic reactions tramadol overdose :: urticaria, pruritus, ekzantema, bullous rash, angioedema, anaphylactic reactions.
When and how to take Tramadol Overdose in powder and in capsules
On the part of the urinary system: difficulty urinating, dysuria, urinary retention.
On the part of the respiratory system: dyspnea, worsening of the course of asthma, bronchospasm.
On the part of the musculoskeletal system: rarely – muscle spasm, involuntary muscle contraction, muscle weakness.
Others: menstrual disorders, fatigue.
Occasionally Tramadol may cause drug dependence in patients prone to drug abuse, as well as with prolonged use of high doses of the drug. Abrupt cancellation after long-term use of the drug can cause withdrawal syndrome (manifestations similar to withdrawal symptoms of narcotic drugs: psychomotor agitation, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, tremor, paresthesias, bouts of phobia, hallucinations, confusion, depersonalization, paranoia, tinnitus, frustration hand digestive system).
during treatment with Tramadol should not drink alcohol.
With long-term use of Tramadol may develop addiction and drug dependence.
Tramadol should not be used for the treatment of drug withdrawal syndrome.
Special care should be taken when prescribing the drug to patients with head injuries, increased intracranial pressure, moderate renal or liver dysfunction, patients with a tendency to seizures, as well as to patients with an increased sensitivity to opiates. The risk of seizures may be higher in patients who use simultaneously with Tramadol means to reduce seizure syndrome. Patients with epilepsy in history and a tendency to epileptic seizures can be prescribed the drug only when absolutely necessary. With caution used to treat patients with impaired respiratory function, or in the case of simultaneous use of funds that inhibit the activity of the central nervous system, because of the risk of further respiratory depression.
The drug contains lactose, so patients with rare hereditary forms of galactose intolerance, lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome should not use the drug.
The ability to influence the reaction rate when driving or working with other mechanisms. When using the drug should refrain from driving and working with other mechanisms, which requires increased attention and quick mental and motor reactions.
Use during pregnancy or lactation. Tramadol penetrates the placental barrier, so the use of the drug during pregnancy is not recommended. If there are indications for conducting anesthetic therapy with opiates during pregnancy, it should be limited to a single use.
A small amount of Tramadol penetrates into breast milk, so do not use the drug during lactation. With a single use, breastfeeding can not be interrupted.
Children. The drug is not used to treat children under the age of 14 years.
with the simultaneous appointment of Tramadol with drugs that inhibit the central nervous system, the mutual effects of central effects, including respiratory depression, are possible.
Inductors of microsomal oxidation (carbamazepine, barbiturates tramadol overdose 🙂 reduce the severity of the analgesic effect and the duration of action. Prolonged use of opioid analgesics or barbiturates stimulates the development of cross-tolerance.
Anxiolytics increase the severity of the analgesic effect, the duration of anesthesia increases with combination with barbiturates. Naloxone activates respiration, stopping analgesia after the use of opioid analgesics. When used together with MAO inhibitors and for 14 days after their withdrawal, furazolidone, procarbazine and antipsychotics have a risk of seizures.
Quinidine increases the plasma concentration of tramadol and reduces the content of the metabolite M1 due to competitive inhibition of CYP 2D6 isoenzyme.
With the simultaneous use of Tramadol and warfarin increases the risk of side effects from the blood coagulation system. Tramadol can cause seizures and / or the development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome when used with serotonergic drugs.
Ketoconazole and erythromycin may interfere with tramadol metabolism. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been studied.
Ondansetron increases the need for tramadol in patients with postoperative pain.
symptoms: vomiting, miosis, circulatory disturbances, depression of consciousness (up to coma), convulsions, depression of the respiratory center to a complete stop of breathing.
The treatment is aimed at ensuring airway patency, maintaining respiration and cardiovascular function.
Antidote in the inhibition of the respiratory center is naloxone, in convulsions – benzodiazepine. Tramadol is poorly excreted by dialysis, so a separate application of hemodialysis or hemofiltration is not enough.
in a dry, dark place at temperatures not above 25 ° C.